Erik Spiekermann _downloads

Why Helvetica sucks at small sizes, especially for user interfaces
by Erik
I have been suf­fer­ing from Typo­ma­nia all my life, a sick­ness that is incur­able but not lethal. The Spiekerblog reflects the fact that I see most things from a typo­graphic perspective. As most of what we find out about comes to us by typo­graphic media – i.e. vis­i­ble lan­guage – any­thing and every­thing may be reported.
Erik Spiek­er­mann, Decem­ber 2008

 fonte: http://spiekermann.com/en/downloads/


The Unicode Consortium

The Unicode Consortium enables people around the world to use computers in any language. Our freely-available specifications and data form the foundation for software internationalization in all major operating systems, search engines, applications, and the World Wide Web. An essential part of our mission is to educate and engage academic and scientific communities, and the general public. [Ler mais...]

Acclaim for Unicode

“The world is a global village, trade crosses language barriers, and yet every one of us likes to feel comfortable within their own mother tongue. Unicode enabled us to give the local sense to every one of our users, while connecting the world of trade—which is the reason we will support Unicode in all of our products.”
—shai agassi, former Member SAP Executive Board



Unicode and Multilingual File Conversion

Alan Wood
Created 26th December 2001
Last updated 23rd December 2004

Unicode and Multilingual File Conversion, Font and Keyboard Utilities for Macintosh OS X Computers 

Mac OS X 10 did not originally include support for as many languages and scripts as Mac OS 9. Mac OS X 10.1 supported Central European, Cyrillic and Japanese, and Korean, Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese were made available as downloads. Mac OS X 10.2 introduced support for Arabic, Devanagari, Greek, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Hebrew and Thai scripts. Mac OS X 10.3 introduced support for Armenian, Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics and Cherokee scripts. 

Character Palette 
Character Palette is a character map for Unicode 3.2 (including supplementary planes) that is supplied with Mac OS X 10.2. It is available on the Keyboard menu, not in the Applications folder. Character Palette can arrange characters by Unicode range, or display them in a table. It can show you a catalogue of the characters in a font, and a list of the fonts that contain a selected character. Characters can be inserted into another application by double-clicking them, or by dragging them, or by selecting them and then clicking the “Insert” button.

Character Palette can also display Japanese, Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese by radical or by category. [Ler mais...]

fonte: http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/utilities_fonts_macosx.html

Yi Syllables from NSimSun-18030, in Character Palette under Mac OS X


Good design - Oliver Reichenstein

Good design is invisible: an interview with iA's Oliver Reichenstein
By Sam Byford on July 24, 2012 01:00 pm

Oliver Reichenstein is the founder and director of Information Architects, the Tokyo, Zurich, and Berlin-based design agency. iA's usual trade is website design and consultancy along with the odd concept like the Twitter strikethrough, but the company has also found recent success in iOS and Mac app development. Writer for iPad is a pioneering minimalist text editor, and its focus-enhancing combination of sparse visuals and refined typography has since made the leap to OS X and the iPhone.

Reichenstein recently took the time to answer some of my questions on design and development. Since iA's work is informed by its presence in Europe and Asia, I wanted to know his thoughts on the differences between the two, and in particular where he sees the state of Japanese design right now. After all, for anyone who's visited a cluttered Japanese website recently, the tasteful and restrained work put out by iA would seem to be entirely out of step with the agency's Tokyo base. Read on for Reichenstein's thoughts on why this is, as well as typography, user interface design, influences, and more — he has a lot to say.

Sam Byford: Where are you right now, and what are you doing? 
Oliver Reichenstein: I’m in Switzerland. My wife and I decided to move from Japan after the earthquake, because we deemed a triple meltdown two car hours away from Tokyo too insecure for our 3 year old boy. It’s too early to tell whether we were right or wrong, but I think it was the right decision, if only for peace of mind. Since we have offices in Zurich and Berlin, and most of our clients are European, it was not a big business risk. Actually, this has been our best year so far, and it has helped me being closer to our main clients. [Ler mais...]




fonte: http://www.theverge.com/2012/7/24/3177332/ia-oliver-reichenstein-writer-interview-good-design-is-invisible


Musée de l'imprimerie Lyon

Le Musée de l'imprimerie : présentation et historique Le musée de l'Imprimerie est un des musées de Lyon dont les missions principales sont d'enrichir, de conserver, de documenter et de valoriser auprès de divers publics le patrimoine livresque et graphique. [Ler mais...]

Corpus Typographique Français 150 ans de lettres en France

Le Corpus typographique français recense les polices de caractères dessinées en France entre 1850 et aujourd’hui. Il se veut une illustration de la création française dans ce domaine. Il n’a pas pour but d’être exhaustif mais représentatif : s’y côtoient des grands classiques et des créations plus obscures, des caractères de labeur « sérieux » et de la « titraille » fantaisiste, des créations de haute volée mais, aussi, des caractères médiocres, voir mauvais, car l’histoire de la typographie en comporte également. [Ler mais...]

fonte: http://www.imprimerie.lyon.fr/imprimerie/sections/fr/musee# 


OnCreativity.tv - Milton Glaser Interview - Part 1

On Creativity sits down with legendary graphic designer Milton Glaser, to discuss the creative process, the act of making things, and cocker spaniels.

fonte: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BGlNBnlpPA&feature=plcp


Jean-Baptiste Levée

Après une formation en communication visuelle à l’école Estienne, Jean-Baptiste Levée (né en 1981) poursuit son cursus en intégrant la section de création typographique en 2002. Il y suit les cours de Franck Jalleau, Michel Derre & Margaret Gray. Il s’intéresse alors aux systèmes de ligatures et à la typographie en signalétique, tout en développant un goût pour les techniques traditionnelles d’impression. [Ler mais...]


Photo © Pascal Béjean


Mauro Zennaro

Mauro Zennaro è nato a Roma nel 1953.

Si occupa di grafica, calligrafia e type design.

Insegna presso l’Istituto d’istruzione superiore Carlo Urbani di Roma e presso l’Università per Stranieri di Perugia.

Ha scritto numerosi articoli sulla grafica, la scrittura e la didattica.

È stato tra i fondatori della rivista Calligrafia e nel comitato di redazione della collana di libri sulla grafica Scritture, pubblicata da Stampa Alternativa/Graffiti.

Suoi lavori manoscritti e a stampa, pubblicati dalle Edizioni dell’Elefante, sono stati esposti in numerosi musei e biblioteche europee e statunitensi.

È membro dell’Aiap–Associazione italiana progettazione per la comunicazione visiva.

fonte: http://www.scriptoria.it/maurozennaro.html


Typotheque: Julien, geometric display typeface

Julien — the making of
by Peter Biľak

Julien is a playful geometric display typeface loosely inspired by the early 20th century avant-garde. It is based on elementary shapes and includes multiple variants of each letter. [Ler mais...]

Julien, geometric display typeface
by Peter Biľak

We are pleased to present a new typeface — Julien. It’s a playful geometric display typeface loosely inspired by the early 20th century avant-garde. It is based on elementary shapes and includes multiple variants of each letter (over 1000 glyphs per style), as well as intelligent OpenType scripts that select glyphs to create the best word shapes. Julien is a unicase typeface in which upper case and lower case letters are mixed together. [Ler mais...]




Tipos online

Tipos online: Directório das fundições digitais, ordenado alfabeticamente

[Ler mais...]

Entre os requisitos essenciais para um bom trabalho de tipografia está, em primeiro lugar, a boa matéria-prima: fontes digitais de primeira qualidade. Nesta secção, listam-se (e comentam-se) web-sites onde vê-las e obtê-las. Todas as empresas que comercializam fontes digitais têm sites para apresentar em detalhe os desenhos e vender as fontes. Basta possuir um cartão de crédito. O tamanho das empresas e as ofertas variam. Existem pequenas digital foundries e as produtoras dos indie fonts, que vendem apenas meia dúzia de fontes – o que não deixa de ter interesse, pois esses pequenos produtores independentes vão colmatando as lacunas de criatividade que os grandes supermercados de fontes (como a Monotype/ Linotype, por exemplo) Não passa uma semana em que não haja novidades a apresentar no web tipográfico. Hoje, os sites das «digital foundries» substituem os antigos mostruários editados pelas fundições de tipos de metal. Na maioria destes web-sites, os interessados podem comprar as fontes directamente online.

Descobriu alguma falha nesta página? Falta alguma fundição? Escreva um email a Paulo Heitlinger.

 fonte: http://tipografos.net/mercado/index.html


Ricardo Santos

Ricardo Santos studied at António Arroio school and is graduated from IADE (Instituto de Artes Visuais, Design e Marketing), both in Lisbon, Master de Tipografia Avanzada - EINA (Escola de Disseny i Art) in Barcelona. He began his career as both a graphic designer and illustrator, and since 1997 has designed his own typefaces. He now works as a free-lance type designer and teaches at ESAD.CR in Caldas da Rainha. [ler mais...]

Vanarchiv is an independent digital type foundry based in Lisbon, Portugal, directed by Ricardo Santos.
Vanarchiv develops and markets original text and display type fonts for both Mac and PC platforms. Vanarchiv typefaces are distributed by: Myfonts, Fountain and FontShop.



Louise Fili

From an essay by Gail Anderson

Louise Fili reinvented book jacket design in the 1980s during her eleven-year tenure as art director of Pantheon Books. Louise may never have known that all the assistant designers, myself included, collected her covers like baseball cards, since we guarded our stashes like they were all Mickey Mantles and would never have traded unless we had doubles. [Ler mais...]


The origins of abc


We see it every day on signs, billboards, packaging, in books and magazines; in fact, you are looking at it now — the Latin or Roman alphabet, the world’s most prolific, most widespread abc. Typography is a relatively recent invention, but to unearth the origins of alphabets, we will need to travel much farther back in time, to an era contemporaneous with the emergence of (agricultural) civilisation itself.

Robert Bringhurst wrote that writing is the solid form of language, the precipitate.[1] But writing is also much more than that, and its origins, its evolution, and the way it is now woven into the fabric of civilisations makes it a truly wonderful story. That story spans some 5,000 years. We’ll travel vast distances, meet an emperor, a clever Yorkshireman, a Phoenician princess by the name of Jezebel, and the ‘purple people’; we’ll march across deserts and fertile plains, and sail across oceans. We will begin where civilisation began, meander through the Middle Ages, race through the Renaissance, and in doing so discover where our alphabet originated, how and why it evolved, and why, for example, an A looks, well, like an A.


The Sumerians began to experiment with writing at the close of the fourth millennium BC, in Mesopotamia between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates (roughly modern-day Iraq). Like most writing systems, Cuneiform, initially scratched — later impressed by a stylus — into soft clay, started out as a series of pictograms — pictures representing words. The word for bird, for example, existed at first as a simple pictorial representation of a bird. The figure below demonstrates this process of abstraction or rationalization. In time, the pictures of things came to represent, not only things but, sounds. It is clear that a written language with signs that represent sounds requires fewer characters than a language in which a sign stands for a thing or an idea. We use 26 letters (and the Romans used only 23 to create some of the most outstanding literature the world has ever known) while the Chinese, for example, have to learn thousands of characters to express themselves. Even early cuneiform comprised some 1,500 pictograms. A language in which a picture or grapheme represents a thing or an idea has its advantages: people may speak any language while the written form stays the same. So a Chinese from the Southern provinces can speak a totally different dialect than his compatriot in Beijing, who would not understand him when he speaks, but can read what he writes. [Ler mais...]

1.1 The pictographic origin of Cuneiform.

fonte: http://ilovetypography.com/2010/08/07/where-does-the-alphabet-come-from/


Wood Type Museum


This Web Museum is established for the purpose of educating the general public, and the next generation, on the beauties of wood types and engraved blocks. Our mission is to gather, save, preserve, and interpret wood types and information about them.

As the demand for broadsides increased during first years of the nineteenth century, the need for the process of producing large letters cheaply arose. Wood was a logical material choice because of its ready availability, lightness, and proven printing qualities. In 1827, Darius Wells of New York City first found the means to mass produce wood letters. In March of 1828, first wood type catalogue was published by Wells. Throughout the wood type manufacturing history, many manufactories were in business. Among those, Wm. H. Page & Co., Vanderburgh, Wells & Co. and Hamilton Mfg. Co. was the most noted ones. [Ler mais...]

Museum of Creative Calendar Design

This Web Museum of Creative Calendar Design is established for the purpose of showcasing the outstanding calendars created by creative graphic desingers thoughout the world. It is a part of our on-going initiative designed to encourage and aspire people with creative talents in various fields to keep creating calendars in physical form. It is open to all with no cost to participants. Calendars have been with us since the beginning of the time. It is an essential part of the civilization. Calendars listed here are chosen for its beauty, uniqueness, and quality of finish. Entries here are essentially by invitation only, from all over the world and selected works will be displayed throughout the year.. So come often, enjoy !!

fonte: Wood Type Museum > Museum of Creative Calendar Design


Jan van Toorn

Rick Poynor
Jan van Toorn: Arguing with Visual Means

Jan van Toorn, subject of a meticulously researched retrospective that opened today (21 March) at the Kunsthal in Rotterdam, is one of the most distinguished and provocative figures in an exceptional generation of Dutch graphic designers. Van Toorn’s social and political concerns, and his way of talking about them, set him apart, even among such colleagues as Wim Crouwel, Anthon Beeke, Gerard Unger, Swip Stolk and Hard Werken founder Rick Vermeulen, who all attended the opening celebration. Van Toorn has described himself as someone interested in the history of ideas, who also happens to be a practical person, a designer, and this is how he comes across. The observations that follow are based on a talk I gave at the opening ceremony. [Ler mais...]

Design Observer


Kohei Sugiura

Speakers Profile: Kohei Sugiura by Zara Arshad

Kohei Sugiura by designboom
at the recent icograda world design congress in beijing,
the japanese graphic designer kohei sugiura
gave a lecture entitled 'one is two, two is many, and many returns to one'.

we quote here:
'that’s the flow of yin and yang.yin and yang seem to be two things and in fact
have different meanings but canbe combined into one'.I often use our fingers
as a metaphor. the ten fingers stand for many. this one can be science, this one
the society, this one the environment… but they all stem from the same origin,
the one. people nowadays tend to make things more and more complex, as in
thenonstop development of science. yet they don’t know how to return to the origin,
and this I think is the problem.one contains two and many, and, many will return
to one.you should nurture yourself with all the information, all the pictures and texts,
and try to make them one.' [Ler mais...]

was born in tokyo in 1932. he graduated from tokyo university of fine arts and music
with a degree in architecture. he has been a graphic designer for five decades, and is
a recognised innovator, especially in the area of book design. sugiura taught at the ulm
school of design in germany from 1964 to 1967, and at kobe design university from 1989 to 2003.
he has written extensively about visual communication, perception, music, and iconography,
with a particular focus on the cultural traditions of asia. among them 'asian and japanese
forms and designs', 'swallowing up the universe','spirits of form and design', 'drumming the cosmos', 'wind and lighting: a half-century of magazine design by kohei sugiura', 'books, texts, and design in asia', and 'luminous mandala: book designs of kohei sugiura'.
sugiura has received numerous awards, including the special prize at the leipzig book design
fair, the mainichi newspaper arts prize, and the arts award from japan’s ministry of education.
in 1997, he received the medal of honor with purple ribbon from the japanese government.

[Ler mais...] > designboom


Min Wang

© designboom

the beijing olympic games will begin on august 8, 2008 - and if it’s
not already the case, you can expect to see the game's iconography
on just about everything in the coming weeks. with such a massive
global audience guaranteed, the job of communicating the event
is no small task.

one of the people taking responsibility for this is min wang,
design director for the beijing 2008 olympic games. wang and his
team have been the creative force behind everything from street
banners to the olympic medals.

designboom recently spoke to him about his role.

past, present, future
I was born in china, where I also grew up and began my studies
before leaving for europe. I went to university of arts in berlin
and then the school of art at yale university in the US.
after studying, teaching and working in europe and the US for
over twenty years, I made the decision to come back to china
to focus my work on two things: design education and
design for the 2008 beijing olympic games. [Ler mais...]

about min wang
min wang was born in china, 1956. he completed his BA in art
at zhejiang academy of fine arts (now the china academy of
fine arts) before studying in berlin and then later achieving
an MFA at yale university school of art in 1986.
since graduating from yale he has worked at adobe systems
where he developed digital kanji typefaces (japanese fonts).
later he worked at a graphic design studio in connecticut,
while continuing in his roles as graphic designer, art director
and design manager in the creative services division at adobe
systems. in 1998, wang left adobe to form square two design
with eddie lee and the consultancy now has offices in
san francisco and beijing. in 2003 wang was appointed as
the dean of the school of design, at china central academy of
fine arts (CAFA) in beijing. after the creation of the art research
centre for the olympic games (ARCOG) at CAFA, wang became
the design director for the beijing 2008 olympic games.

[Ler mais...] > designboom


Periodic Table of Typefaces


Large image link HERE

Prints are available HERE

The Periodic Table of Typefaces is obviously in the style of all the thousands of over-sized Periodic Table of Elements posters hanging in schools and homes around the world. This particular table lists 100 of the most popular, influential and notorious typefaces today. [Ler mais...]

fonte: BehanceNetwork


Jean François Porchez

This month marks the second anniversary of our acclaimed series of interviews. Thank you all for your compliments and encouragements! We celebrate the event with a lengthy interview conducted in French (don't worry — we did translate it)…

Ever since he vaulted onto the type scene fifteen years ago with a series of widely visible and award-winning typefaces, Jean François Porchez has been among the most prominent type designers in France. He designed custom type for clients ranging from the Baltimore Sun to Louis Vuitton and the Paris Métro, and drew some of the best-known logos in his country. He has been with MyFonts since our first year and has recently made available several more of his spectacular font families. Meet Jean François Porchez, our man in Paris.

[Ler mais...] > Creative Characters is the MyFonts newsletter dedicated to people behind the fonts.


¿Que es Carácter Tipográfico?

"Carácter tipográfico es un lugar para todos aquellos que gustan, entienden u otorgan un valor importante a la tipografía y a la letra en general. Es un medio digital a partir del cual proponemos informar o participar en la creación de una cultura tipográfica en castellano. Queremos convocar inteligencias y voluntades, muchas o pocas, en torno a una representación de nuestra época: vivimos una era interesante para la letra y la cultura impresa; los medios digitales, lejos de sustituirlas por otra cosa, las transforman y desarrollan."

fonte: Carácter Tipográfico


Buchstaben Museum

Ziel des Buchstabenmuseums in Berlin ist es, die Exponate in einem repräsentativen Museum der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Geplant sind Dauer- und Sonderausstellungen sowie begleitende Aktionen, um weiterhin das Bewusstsein für Typografie und das Interesse für die Sammlung zu wecken. [Ler mais...]


Petit guide de typographie

Eric Martini

Quand et comment abréger,
où mettre des capitales,
quels caractères choisir,
qu'est-ce qu'un sigle,
comment utiliser les espaces…

En accord avec l’éditeur, l’auteur, Eric Martini, reprend ici la quasi-totalité des recommandations présenté dans le Petit Guide de typographie (Editions Glyphe. Deuxième édition, 2008).

Le livre – plus facilement consultable, annotable – est disponible en librairie et sur le site de l’éditeur: Petit guide de typographie

Eric Martini dirige l’entreprise Glyphe, qu’il a créée en 1999. Au sein des Editions Glyphe, il corrige les textes et conseille les auteurs dans la présentation de leurs manuscrits. [Ler mais...]
fonte: Editions Glyphe


Um Século em Cartaz

Lúcia Bergamaschi Costa Weymar
Universidade Federal de Pelotas e Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.

Resumo: Este artigo resulta de uma proposta pedagógica acerca de design gráfico.
A proposta em questão é de caráter teórico e prático e propõe uma retrospectiva a propósito de alguns designers nacionais e internacionais que contribuíram para a história do design gráfico moderno e pós moderno. A partir desta teoria, os alunos projetaram cartazes homenageando tais designers e o resultado deste projeto, bem como a metodologia e a avaliação de todo este processo, estabelece o desenvolvimento deste texto.

Palavras-Chave: história do design gráfico moderno e pós-moderno 1. cartaz 2. ensino da comunicação visual 3. comunicação e cultura 4.

2.2) Design Gráfico Pós-Moderno
2.2.1) Origens do Design Gráfico Pós-Moderno

Segundo Cauduro, na metade dos anos 1960 a monotonia e pasteurização do design ocidental começam a ser contestadas com Odermatt & Tissi em Zurique e Wolfgang Weingart em Basel: “(...) alternativas não-dogmáticas e mais descontraídas (retorno à ornamentação, ao simbolismo, ao humor e à improvisação) para fugir da esterilidade das formas modernistas” (CAUDURO, 1998, p. 79) passam a ser incluídas. Para o autor, citando Keedy, design pós-moderno é reação e não rejeição ao design moderno. Os pós-modernistas reagem aos excessos racionalistas e positivistas da modernidade. Como influências para estas mudanças podem ser lembradas as novas formas de viver dos existencialistas e beatniks dos anos 1950 e hippies dos anos 1960. É importante destacar que nesse momento surge o movimento psicodélico no design americano de contracultura. Cauduro5 aponta que este estilo pode ser considerado como apropriação (como veremos adiante com Poynor) e radicalização da Op-Art: estilos revividos, história reciclada, progresso material desprezado, valorização do inconformismo, da intuição e do subjetivismo. Podemos ainda lembrar o revivalismo dos estilos vitoriano, do Art Nouveau e do Art Déco, destacando então os designers Milton Glaser e Herb Lubalin com seu autoproclamado expressionismo, onde funde tipos com pictogramas inspirados no vernacular.

2.2.2) Estética Logocentrista
A metafísica logocêntrica da presença, ou logocentrismo, é aquela posição filosófica
pela qual a fala tem sido sempre vista como sendo a única conexão verdadeira que
temos com o nosso pensamento, a escrita sendo apenas uma mera técnica para
representá-la. (Cauduro, 1998, p. 84)
Creio ser pertinente trazermos a nossa reflexão as pontuações realizadas por Cauduro
acerca do confronto de idéias entre Saussure e Derrida6 no que se refere à escrita. Saussure a
via como servil à fala, essa sim ligada ao pensar. Acreditava até que ela poderia ser maléfica
e perigosa já que muitas vezes infiel ao pensamento. Derrida, em contrapartida, definia a
escrita como um signo a mais, não apenas uma notação representativa da fala, mas uma
diferença. Ele se perguntava onde estava o perigo, porque a escrita vem sendo condenada a
uma distância, a uma invisibilidade? Cauduro avança o confronto passando então a criticar
um autor contemporâneo, o inglês McLean, que defende que o propósito do design
tipográfico é o comunicar palavras concebidas na mente de alguém, destituindo de sua
abrangência toda e qualquer imagem que não a formada por tipos, uma prática absurdamente
anacrônica em se considerando que as vanguardas do design em décadas passadas já haviam
refutado estes postulados7.
O design tipográfico pós-moderno não é excludente tal como todas as outras
manifestações das artes visuais contemporâneas, já que é abrangente e inclusivo. A condição
pós-moderna supõe que a transparência sobrevive, e em muitos casos deve permanecer, mas
não mais privilegia apenas o conteúdo verbal da estética logocêntrica, pois o estímulo à
inovação e à experimentação já é uma conquista centenária.

2.2.3) Retórica Tipográfica e Tipografia Digital
Em relação à retórica, Cauduro nos ensina que a tipografia clássica “é apenas uma das
variantes retóricas que a escrita tipográfica, ou o design tipográfico, melhor dizendo, pode
assumir na prática (...) ela não é toda a tipografia (...)”. O autor analisa que a tipografia
clássica é adequada “para manter o mito da autoridade” e conclui que “esta retórica
tipográfica da invisibilidade (...) é a face gráfica, visível, do logocentrismo”. (CAUDURO,
1988, p. 95)
O autor afirma que hoje
é o computador que propiciará o rejuvenescimento, uma vez mais, do design
tipográfico, como preconizado pelos futuristas, dadaístas e surrealistas, permitindo o
retorno do jogo e do acaso, fatores anteriormente oprimidos pelos funcionalistas do
design, mas que agora emergem, e são cada vez mais valorizados, graças aos
incríveis resultados gerados pelas novas tecnologias digitais de criação e produção
(Cauduro,1998, p.99).
Em outro artigo, Cauduro classifica a tipografia digital hoje em: fontes bitmap ou
pixeladas, fontes techno, fontes revival ou retro, vernaculares, informais e idiossincráticas,
grunges, randômicas, híbridas, fontes de artifício e dingbats. (CAUDURO, 2002, p. 1-1)
(pp. 5)

5 CAUDURO, 2000, p. 127-139.
6 CAUDURO, 1998, p. 81-85.
7 CAUDURO, 1998, p. 81-93.

Typography as Discourse

McCoy, Katherine, with David Frej, 'Typography as Discourse', ID Magazine, New York, March/April 1988, pp. 34-37.

The recent history of graphic design in the U.S. reveals a series of actions and reactions. The fifties saw the flowering of U.S. graphic design in the New York School. This copy-concept and image-oriented direction was challenged in the sixties by the importation of Swiss minimalism, a structural and typographic system that forced a split between graphic design and advertising. Predictably, designers in the next decade rebelled against Helvetica and the grid system that had become the official American corporate style.

In the early seventies, Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture emerged alongside the study of graphic design history as influences on American graphic design students. Simultaneously, Switzerland's Basel school was transformed by Wolfgang Weingart's syntactical experimentation, an enthusiasm that quickly spread to U.S. schools. Academia's rediscovery of early 20th century Modernism, the appearance of historicized and vernacular architectural postmodernism and the spread of Weingartian structural expressionism all came together in the graphic explosion labeled as New Wave.

Shattering the constraints of minimalism was exhilarating and far more fun than the antiseptic discipline of the classical Swiss school. After a brief flurry of diatribes in the graphic design press, this permissive new approach quickly moved into the professional mainstream. Today, however, the maverick has been tamed, codified into a formalistic style that fills our design annuals with endlessly sophisticated renditions. What was originally a revolution is now an institution, as predictable as Beaux Arts architecture. It is the new status quo-- the New Academy, as Phil Meggs calls it.

Determining whether New Wave is postmodernism or just late Modernism is important in understanding new work today. New Wave extends the classical Swiss interest in structure to dissections and recombinations of graphic design's grammar. Layered images and textures continue the collage aesthetic begun by Cubism, Constructivism, and Dada. But the addition of vernacular imagery and colors reflects postmodern architecture's discovery of popular culture, and the reintroduction of the classic serif typefaces draws on pre-20th century history. Taken as a whole, however, New Wave's complex arrangements are largely syntactical, abstracting type and images into baroquely Modern compositions.

The New Academy's knowing, often slick iterations have left some graphic designers dissatisfied. As a result, long neglected design elements, such as semantic expression in form, text and imagery, are beginning to resurface. Much of this recent work steps outside the lineage of Bauhaus/ Basel/ New Wave, and not surprisingly, some of its practitioners come from fine art, photographic or literary backgrounds rather than graphic design training.

When one looks for experimental typography today, what one finds is not so much new typography, as new relationships between text and image. In fact, the typography so celebrated over the past ten years of structuralist dissection is disappearing. The look and structure of the letter is underplayed and verbal signification, interacting with imagery and symbols, is instead relied upon. The best new work is often aformal and sometimes decidedly anti-formal, despite the presence of some New Wave elements. Reacting to the technical perfection of mainstream graphic design, refinement and mastery are frequently rejected in favor of the directness of unmannered, hand-drawn or vernacular forms-- after all, technical expertise is hardly a revelation anymore. These designers value expression over style.

Here on the edges of graphic design, the presence of the designer is sometimes so oblique that certain pieces would seem to spring directly from our popular culture. Reflecting current linguistic theory, the notion of "authorship" as a personal, formal vocabulary is less important than the dialogue between the graphic object and its audience; no longer are there one-way statements from designer. The layering of content, as opposed to New Wave's formal layering of collage elements, is the key to this exchange. Objective communication is enhanced by deferred meanings, hidden stories and alternative interpretations.

Sources for much current experimentation can be traced to recent fine art and photography, and to literary and art criticism. Influenced by French post-structuralism, critics and artists deconstruct verbal language as a filter or bias that inescapably manipulates the reader's response. When this approach is applied to art and photography, form is treated as a visual language to be read as well as seen. Both the texts and the images are to be read in detail, their meanings decoded. Clearly, this intellectualized communication asks a lot of its audience; this is harder work than the formal pleasures of New Wave.

Much new typography is very quiet. Some of the most interesting, in fact, is impossible to show here because of its radically modest scale or its subtle development through a sequence of pages. Some is bold in scale but so matter-of-fact that it makes little in the way of a visual statement. (One designer calls these strictly linguistic intentions "nonallusive" typography.) Typefaces now range from the classics to banal, often industrial sans serifs. Copy is often treated as just that-- undifferentiated blocks of words-- without the mannered manipulations of New Wave, where sentences and words are playfully exploded to express their parts. Text is no longer the syntactic playground of Weingart's descendants.

These cryptic, poker-faced juxtapositions of text and image do not always strive for elegance or refinement, although they may achieve it inadvertently. The focus now is on expression through semantic content, utilizing the intellectual software of visual language as well as the structural hardware and graphic grammar of Modernism. It is an interactive process that-- as art always anticipates social evolution-- heralds our emerging information economy, in which meanings are as important as materials.

fonte:  High Ground Design.


Classification Vox-AtypI

Polices de caractères

Des commentaires de polices très sérieux, enrichis de définitions pour les néophytes et d'illustrations pour vos beaux yeux ?
Cliquez à votre guise :

Didot millimétrique
Garamont de l'Imprimerie nationale
Gauthier de l'Imprimerie nationale
Grandjean de l'Imprimerie nationale
Marcellin Legrand de l'Imprimerie nationale
Luce de l'Imprimerie nationale

Familles de caractères
Classification Vox-AtypI
C'est Francis Thibaudeau qui, le premier en 1921, eu l'idée de regrouper certains caractères présentant des caractéristiques communes établies selon certains critères formels principalement liés aux empattements. Il classa ainsi les caractères en quatre familles : bâton ou antique, didot, égyptienne, elzévir.

Cette répartition, insuffisante pour concerner l'ensemble de la production graphique, fut complétée en 1954 par Maximilien Vox avec une répartition en neuf familles tenant compte de l'architecture générale des lettres et de détails historiques : manuaire, humane, garalde, réale, didone, mécane, linéale, incise, scripte. Il fallut attendre l'addition de deux familles, fractur et orientale, proposées par l'AtypI (Association Typographique Internationale) en 1962, pour parvenir aux onze familles de la classification Vox-AtypI.

Cette classification, adoptée par toute la profession du monde des Arts et Industries graphiques, permet de faire entrer dans une de ces familles tous les caractères actuellement sur le marché ou, tout au moins, par le principe d'addition de définitions, de pouvoir décrire tous les caractères.

Bien entendu certains caractères dessinés pour le titrage ou pour des amusements typographiques peuvent en être exclus.


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Affaire-esperluette, 2003. Tous droits réservés.


Tipografía vernacular:

La revolución silenciosa de las letras del cotidiano

Vera Lúcia Dones*

Este artigo pretende fazer um registro da tipografia
vernacular e de algumas expressões gráficas de letristas
anônimos da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre. A
complexidade de estéticas gráficas visuais dos últimos
50 anos testemunha a superação de modelos universais
da tipografia aplicada à comunicação gráfica. As reflexões
que seguem procuram evidenciar a proliferação
de sincretismos e da união de elementos gráficos díspares
nas construções imagéticas, as formas autênticas e
arcaicas permeiam o sofisticado e tecnológico do design
gráfico atual.
Em se tratando de legibilidade da tipografia aplicada
ao design gráfico, sabemos que na perspectiva moderna,
a legibilidade era tida como o resultado de uma série
de atributos e critérios fixos aplicados ao texto, com
base em normas criadas a partir de pesquisas óticas-funcionais,
as “regras” tipográficas. Esses referenciais
não consideravam as conotações culturais dos caracteres,
e tampouco entendiam o design como parte de
uma cultura cada vez mais complexa e diversa. A partir
dos anos 70 os textos pós-estruturalistas invadiram
algumas escolas norte-americanas de design, dentre
elas a Cranbrook Academy, vindo a constituir-se em
rico material de reflexão e sustentação teórica para os
projetos gráficos dos alunos. Segundo Lupton (1991), os
primeiros passos no caminho do design pós-estruturalista
se deve à escola de Detroit. As peças gráficas eram
produzidas como signos visuais e verbais e explorados
através de seus múltiplos significados.
A desconstrução tipográfica passou, igualmente, pela
Escola da Basiléia com Wolfgang Weingart. Voz
alternativa na Suíça dos anos 70, Weingart defendeu o
enfoque experimental na tipografia. Suas experimentações
tipográficas de alguns letristas na região metropolitana de Porto
Alegre, e de que forma o imaginário da cultura popular
serve de inspiração à criação dos designers gráficos.

* Graduada em Artes Plásticas, Mestre em Comunicação
Social, Centro Universitário Feevale.

Actas de Diseño 1. Facultad de Diseño y Comunicación. Universidad de Palermo. pp. 23-164. ISSN 1850-2032



by James Craig

Designingwithtype.com is a web site devoted to the art and appreciation of typography. It offers a unique typographic resource for students, educators, and professionals, showcasing talent from around the world. [Ler mais...]

There are many excellent ways of teaching the history of graphic design. One of the better ways, though this is not always possible, is to integrate the history of graphic design with the other arts — painting, literature, music — and with major political and cultural events of the time. The following timelines are from James Craig's book Thirty Centuries of Graphic Design and cover just a few of the highlights between 30,000 BC and 1990 AD, the year book was published.

1000 BC – 500 AD

500 – 1300

1300 – 1400

1400 – 1500

1500 – 1600

1600 – 1700

1700 – 1800

1800 – 1900

1900 – 1920

1920 – 1940

1940 – 1960

1960 – 1990


Prehistoric Pictograph
Cuneiform, ca 3100 B.C.
Egyptian Hieroglyphics
Early Latin. ca.700 B.C.
Ionic Greek adopted in 403 B.C.
Trajan Inscription A.D. 114
[Ler mais...] > Timelines 

Items of Interest
The following is an assortment of all things typographic. It will be of interest to anyone who loves typography and is curious about the history of graphic design and the evolution of the printed word. 



The strokes of letters b, d, f, h, k, l which project above the level of the 'x' height of the typeface"

"Standing Type
Type or formes that have been printed but not broken up and distributed back into the case."

"Wrong Fount
A letter of the wrong size or design erroneously getting into a setting."

[Ler mais...] > letterpress london college of communication


Typography Glossary

Explore the world of typography and digital type through words, definitions, and mini-tutorials on using fonts in desktop publishing. Take a look at the terminology of type and fonts, especially as it applies to desktop publishing.

These are just the briefest of definitions of Typography terminology. For more detailed descriptions see the individual page for each term.

Alpha Index of All Desktop Publishing Terms

"Type Designer
By Jacci Howard Bear, About.com

Definition: A professional type designer is highly skilled and knowledgeable about the anatomy of typefaces as well as type history. Type designers create new typefaces from scratch or based on existing typeface designs. Today, with the ready availability of font editors and type design software, anyone can modify fonts or create new ones and can be considered type designers, although the best typefaces are still generally created by dedicated, professional type designers.

Also Known As: font designer

Examples: The history of typography generally begins with Gutenberg and the development of moveable type, but it has its roots in handwritten letterforms -- whether transcribed with pen and ink or chiseled in stone -- for they are the basis of type designs."

Typography Primer

Typographic Terms at the end of this document...

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